Scleroderma capeverdeanum, a subhypogeous fungus new to Japan, collected from the Eucalyptus plantation in Ibaraki Prefecture

Article info

Kasuya T, Uzawa M, Hosaka K (2022) Truffology 5(1): 23–32
Submitted: 14 December 2021
Accepted: 19 March 2022
Published: 31 March 2022

Download Full Text



A subhypogeous sclerodermataceous fungus was collected in the Eucalyptus plantation of Ibaraki Prefecture, central Japan. Based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences, the present fungus was identified as Scleroderma capeverdeanum, belonging to Sclerodermataceae (Boletales). Scleroderma capeverdeanum is new to Japan and characterized by small-sized (4–10 mm in diam.), sessile basidiomata, yellowish to yellowish brown exoperidium with brownish, areolate to verrucose scales, and echinulate basidiospores. Japanese specimens of S. capeverdearnum are probably associated with introduced E. globulus, and therefore they are most likely exotic species introduced from Australia.


  1. Baseia I.G, Silva B.D.B., Ishikawa N.K., Soares J.V.C., França I.F., Ushijima S., Maekawa N., Martín M.P. (2016) Discovery or extinction of new Scleroderma species in Amazonia? PLoS ONE 11: e0167879.
  2. Bashir H., Khalid A.N. (2015) Morpho-anatomical and molecular characterisation of ectomycorrhizae associated with Eucalyptus species growing in different areas of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Australian Journal of Botany 62: 689–697.
  3. Beaton G., Weste G. (1982) A new species of Scleroderma from Victoria, Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 79: 41–43.
  4. Binder M., Bresinsky A. (2002) Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors. Mycologia 94: 85–98.
  5. Binder M., Hibbett D.S. (2006) Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales. Mycologia 98: 971–981.
  6. Coccia M., Migliozzi V., Lavorato C. (1990) Studio sul genere Scleroderma Persoon. Bollettino dell’Associazione Micologia ed Ecologica Romana 20–21: 3–59.
  7. Crous P.W., Wingfield M.J., Richardson D.M., Le Roux J.J., Strasberg D., Edwards J., Roets F., Hubka V., Taylor P.W.J., Heykoop M., Martín M.P., Moreno G., Sutton D.A., Wiederhold N.P., Barnes C.W., Carlavilla J.R., Gené J., Giraldo A., Guarnaccia V., Guarro J., Hernández-Restrepo M., Kolařík M., Manjón J.L., Pascoe I.G., Popov E.S., Sandoval-Denis M., Woudenberg J.H.C., Acharya K., Alexandrova A.V., Alvarado P., Barbosa R.N., Baseia I.G., Blanchette R.A., Boekhout T., Burgess T.I., Cano-Lira J.F., Čmoková A., Dimitrov R.A., Dyakov M.Y., Dueñas M., Dutta A.K., Esteve-Raventós F., Fedosova A.G., Fournier J., Gamboa P., Gouliamova D.E., Grebenc T., Groenewald M., Hanse B., Hardy G.E.St.J., Held B.W., Jurjević Ž., Kaewgrajang T., Latha K.P.D., Lombard L., Luangsa-Ard J.J., Lysková P., Mallátová N., Manimohan P., Miller A.N., Mirabolfathy M., Morozova O.V., Obodai M., Oliveira N.T., Ordóñez M.E., Otto E.C., Paloi S., Peterson S.W., Phosri C., Roux J., Salazar W.A., Sánchez A., Sarria G.A., Shin H.-D., Silva B.D.B., Silva G.A., Smith M.Th., Souza-Motta C.M., Stchigel A.M., Stoilova-Disheva M.M., Sulzbacher M.A., Telleria M.T., Toapanta C., Traba J.M., Valenzuela-Lopez N., Watling R., Groenewald J.Z. (2016) Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468. Persoonia 36: 316–458.
  8. Disyatat N.R., Yomyart S., Sihanonth P., Piapukiew J. (2016) Community structure and dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a dipterocarp forest fragment and plantation in Thailand. Plant Ecology & Diversity 9: 577–588.
  9. Edgar R.C. (2004a) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32: 1792–1797.
  10. Edgar R.C. (2004b) MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity. BMC Bioinformatics 5: 113.
  11. Felsenstein J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.
  12. Frahm J.P., Lindlar A., Sollman P., Fischer E. (1996) Bryophytes from the Cape Verde Islands. Tropical Bryology 12: 123–153.
  13. Giachini A.J., Oliveira V.L., Castellano M.A., Trappe J.M. (2000) Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations in southern Brazil. Mycologia 92: 1166–1177.
  14. Gube M., Dörfelt H. (2012) Gasteromycetation in Agaricaceae s. l. (Basidiomycota): morphological and ecological implementations. Feddes Repertorium 122: 367–390.
  15. Guzmán G. (1970) Monografia del género Scleroderma Pers. emend. Fr. (Fungi-Basidiomycetes). Darwiniana 16: 233–407.
  16. Guzmán G., Ovrebo C.L. (2000) New observations on sclerodermataceous fungi. Mycologia 92: 174–179.
  17. Guzmán G., Cortés-Pérez A., Guzmán-Dávalos L., Ramírez-Guillén F., Sánchez-Jácome, M.R. (2013) An emendation of Scleroderma, new records, and review of the known species in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 84: 173–191.
  18. Hall T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.
  19. Hosaka K. (2009) Phylogeography of the genus Pisolithus revisited with some additional taxa from New Caledonia and Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B 35: 151–167.
  20. Hosaka K., Castellano M.A. (2008) Molecular phylogenetics of Geastrales with special emphasis on the position of Sclerogaster. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B 34: 161–173.
  21. Hosaka K., Kasuya T., Reynolds H.T., Sung G.H. (2010) A new record of Elaphomyces guangdongensis (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Fungi) from Taiwan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B 36: 107–115.
  22. Huang C., Zhang M., Wu X.-L., Wu G., Xu J.-P., Yang Z.L., Li Y.-C. (2021) Cyanescent Gyroporus (Gyroporaceae, Boletales) from China. MycoKeys 81: 165–183.
  23. Inuma T., Kansako M., Nakashima C. (2015) Leaf and shoot blight of Eucalypts caused by Pseudoplagiostoma eucalypti (in Japanese with English summary). Tree and Forest Health 19: 133–138.
  24. Kanchanaprayudh J., Zhou Z., Yomyart S., Sihanonth P., Hogetsu T. (2003) Molecular phylogeny of ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus fungi associated with pine, dipterocarp, and eucalyptus trees in Thailand. Mycoscience 44: 287–294.
  25. Kasuya T., Guzmán G. (2007) Veligaster nitidum, a pantropical sclerodermataceous fungus new to Japan and Thailand. Mycoscience 48: 259–262.
  26. Kasuya T., Guzmán G., Ramírez-Guillén F., Kato T. (2002) Scleroderma laeve (Gasteromycetes, Sclerodermatales), new to Japan. Mycoscience 43: 475–476.
  27. Kasuya T., Hosaka K., Uno K., Kakishima M. (2012) Phylogenetic placement of Geastrum melanocephalum and polyphyly of Geastrum triplex. Mycoscience 53: 411–426.
  28. Kimura M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16: 111–120.
  29. Komaki H., Okamura A., Sayeki M., Niwa Y., Sonoda Y. (2000) The chemical composition of Eucalyptus leaves and palatability of Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) (in Japanese with English summary). Japanese Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 5: 127–132.
  30. Kumar S., Stecher G., Li M., Knyaz C., Tamura K. (2018) MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 35: 1547–1549.
  31. Louzan R., Wilson A.W., Binder M., Hibbett D.S. (2007) Phylogenetic placement of Diplocystis wrightii in the Sclerodermatineae (Boletales) based on nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA sequences. Mycoscience 48: 66–69.
  32. Mrak T., Kühdorf K., Grebenc T., Štraus I., Münzenberger B., Kraigher H. (2017) Scleroderma areolatum ectomycorrhiza on Fagus sylvatica L. Mycorrhiza 27: 283–293.
  33. Nara K. (2006) Ectomycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment during early primary succession. New Phytologist 169: 169–178.
  34. Nouhra E.R., Caffot M.L.H., Pastor N., Crespo E.M. (2012) The species of Scleroderma from Argentina, including a new species from the Nothofagus forest. Mycologia 104: 488–495.
  35. Ortiz-Rivero J., Watling R., Guzmán-Dávalos L., Martín M.P. (2021) The many-rooted earthball—Scleroderma geaster and S. polyrhizum revisited, with the description of a new species. Phytotaxa 510: 1–17.
  36. Phosri C., Martín M.P., Sihanonth P., Whalley A.J.S., Watling R. (2007) Molecular study of the genus Astraeus. Mycological Research 111: 275–286.
  37. Phosri C., Martín M.P., Watling R., Jeppson M., Sihanonth P. (2009) Molecular phylogeny and re-assessment of some Scleroderma spp. (Gasteromycetes). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 66(S1): 83–91.
  38. Phosri C., Martín M.P., Suwannasai N., Sihanonth P., Watling R. (2012) Pisolithus: a new species from southeast Asia and a new combination. Mycotaxon 120: 195–208.
  39. Rose R.W.Jr., Dyke C.G.V., Davey C.B. (1981) Scanning electron microscopy of three types of ectomycorrhizae formed on Eucalyptus nova-anglica in the southeastern United States. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 683–688.
  40. Sanon K.B., Bâ A.M., Delaruelle C., Duponnois R., Martin F. (2009) Morphological and molecular analyses in Scleroderma species associated with some Caesalpinioid legumes, Dipterocarpaceae and Phyllanthaceae trees in southern Burkina Faso. Mycorrhiza 19: 571–584.
  41. Sene S., Avril R., Chaintreuil C., Geoffroy A., Ndiaye C., Diedhiou A.G., Sadio O., Courtecuisse R., Sylla S.N., Selosse M.A. , Bâ A.M. (2015) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Mycorrhiza 25: 547–559.
  42. Seutin G., White B.N., Boag P.T. (1991) Preservation of avian blood and tissue samples for DNA analyses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 82–90.
  43. Shibata N., Yoshikawa K. (1956) Some experimental considerations of silviculture of Eucalyptus (1). On the effect of the soil types and manure upon the growth of Eucalyptus rostrata seedlings (in Japanese with English summary). Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forests 26: 1–9.
  44. Siri-in J., Kumla J., Suwannarach N., Lumyong S. (2014) Culture conditions and some properties of pure culture of ectomycorrhizal fungus, Scleroderma sinnamariense. Chiang Mai Journal of Science 41: 275–285.
  45. Sims K.P., Watling R., Jeffries P. (1995) A revised key to the genus Scleroderma. Mycotaxon 56: 403–420.
  46. Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). MA Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.
  47. Tamura K., Nei M. (1993) Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10: 512–526.
  48. Tedersoo L., Bahram M., Jairus T., Bechem E., Chinoya S., Mpumba R., Leal M., Randrianjohany E., Razafimandimbison S., Sadam A., Naadel T., Kõljalg, U. (2011) Spatial structure and the effects of host and soil environments on communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in wooded savannas and rain forests of Continental Africa and Madagascar. Molecular Ecology 20: 3071–3080.
  49. Vilgalys R., Hester M. (1990) Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified DNA from several Cryptococcus species. Journal of Bacteriology 172: 4238–4246.
  50. Walbert K., Ramsfield T.D., Ridgway H.J., Jones E.E. (2010) Ectomycorrhizal species associated with Pinus radiata in New Zealand including novel associations determined by molecular analysis. Mycorrhiza 20: 209–215.
  51. Watling R. (2006) The sclerodermatoid fungi. Mycoscience 47: 18–24.
  52. White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J.W. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis M.A., Gelfand D.H., Sninsky J.J., White T.J. (eds.) PCR protocols. Academic Press, New York, pp. 315–322.
  53. Wilson A.W., Binder M., Hibbett D.S. (2011) Effects of gasteroid fruiting body morphology on diversification rates in three independent clades of fungi estimated using binary state speciation and extinction analysis. Evolution 65: 1305–1322.
  54. Yoshimi S. (2002) Taxonomic study of the Japanese taxa of Scleroderma Pers. (in Japanese with English summary). Nippon Kingakukai Kaiho 43: 3–18.
  55. Zhang C., Xu X.-E., Liu J., He M., Wang W., Wang Y., Ji K. (2013) Scleroderma yunnanense, a new species from South China. Mycotaxon 125: 193–200.
  56. Zhang Y.-Z., Sun C.-Y., Sun J., Zhang K.-P., Zhang H.-S., Guo X., Zhou Y.-J., Zheng D.-S., Li H.-J. (2020) Scleroderma venenatum sp. nov., S. venenatum var. macrosporum var. nov. and S. suthepense new to China. Phytotaxa 438: 107–118.